SOMMAIRE DU VOL. 33, No. 1, 2008

Maghreb Review Vol 33 Nos 1-1 2008

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Vol. 33, No. 1, 2008

NUMÉRO SPÉCIAL SUR LES MIGRATIONS ET L’IMMIGRATION

ANNE-MARIE BRISEBARRE: “Des Musulmans Immigrés aux Musulmans Français : Le Statut du Sacrifice de l’Aïd al-Kebir.”

RÉSUMÉ: Dans le contexte de la laïcité française, quel est le statut du sacrifice familial qui est au coeur de la grande fête de l’Aïd al-Kebir? Au travers des enquêtes de terrain, d’articles de presse et de l’analyse des textes officiels, cet article montrera comment depuis 1981, année de l’arrivée au pouvoir d’un gouvernement socialiste, cette pratique rituelle musulmane a posé problème aux pouvoirs publics, à l’échelle municipale, départementale, nationale ou même européenne. D’où un certain nombre de tentatives pour encadrer ou organiser, réprimer ou interdire ce sacrifice. Dans le même temps, on est passé d’une population immigrée de religion musulmane à la reconnaissance de l’islam comme deuxième religion française : que devient aujourd’hui le sacrifice de l’Aïd al-Kebir dans le cadre de « l’islam de France »?

 

KARIMA LAACHIR: “French Muslims and the Politics of Laïcité

ABSTRACT: This paper focuses on the way Islam has been racialized in Europe in the last decade and how this racialization fosters the implicit and latent exclusion of European Muslims from the benefits of constructive nation-building and the full rights of citizenship. The paper will specifically address the development in the relationship between the North African diaspora and the French government and the constant processes of negotiation and renegotiation that are taking place today in relation to issues of social, economic and political inclusion (not least in respect of the Republican laws of secularism or laïcité). It addresses the following questions. What are the effects of racism, xenophobia and social and political exclusion on mobilizing the young generation of North African diaspora in France towards moving to a new Islamic identity? Can we read the visibility of Islam and the demands of the North African diaspora as signs of integration and not disintegration in French society, because those demands arguably reflect their strong feelings of being part of the French nation, their homeland?

 

RICARD ZAPATA BARRERO: “Moroccan Immigrants in Spain: An overview of main topics and normative challenges”

ABSTRACT: For years Spain was a country of emigration, mainly to the Northern countries of Europe, but also to Latin American countries. In the last two decades, however, Spain has been transformed into a country of immigration. The accession to the European Community in 1985 and accompanying economic growth and the economic and historical connections with Northern Africa and South America have mainly triggered immigration. Although Spain still represents relatively low numbers of immigrants compared to other European countries (6,2 per cent of the population in 2005), immigration numbers have more than doubled in 5 years. In 2004 Spain received most immigrants of the European Union (EU). The large majority of immigrants come from Latin America, Europe and Africa. Moroccan immigrants are the largest foreign national group residing in Spain.
    At the beginning of the 21st century Spain witnessed another important change. While the issue of immigration used to be (and to a large extend still is) mainly a matter of controlling immigration flows (prevention), more recently the social integration of immigration has gained importance. It became an issue of public and political debate for the first time in 2000 (R. Zapata-Barrero, 2003c), when riots against Moroccan immigrant workers took place in El Ejido, a market-gardening town (ciudad-cortijo) in Southeast Spain (R. Zapata-Barrero, 2003a and 2003b). This article describes the main characteristics of Moroccan migration flows and settlement in Spain. We start in section 1 with the key events and conflicts related to Moroccan immigration that have shaped the social and political agenda. Section 2 gives an overview of the development of Morocco immigration flows and draws on the legal and social-economic characteristics of the Moroccan community. Section 3 describes perceptions towards immigration in general, paying special attention to perceptions of the Moroccan population. Finally, section 4 describes how the bilateral relations between Spain and Morocco have shaped the current immigration policy. The report ends with some preliminary conclusions on the relationship between Moroccan - Spanish immigration flows and Spanish immigration policy.

 

YEHUDIT RONEN: “A Libyan-Italian Encounter: The changing mosaic of Mediterranean Migration”

ABSTRACT: At the turn of the 21st century, an unprecedented number of African migrants have crossed through the Maghreb and across the Mediterranean Sea in ever-increasing waves, propelling themselves towards the shores of the European “Promised Land”. Whether it is voluntary or forced, migration within the Mediterranean basin has a long historical precedent. Yet, Libya’s function as a primary conduit of migration from Africa through the Maghreb now positions it at the vanguard of this massive movement towards Europe and particularly towards Italy. Additionally, the fact that a huge number of migrants stop temporarily or permanently in Libya itself is a recent development.
    While examining the scope and essence of this large-scale demographic influx and defining its specific characteristics and motivations, this article analyses the impact of this phenomenon and its social, economic and political ramifications for the Libyan state and the broader geopolitical zone. The discussion, focusing primarily on the period from the 1990s onwards, also sheds light on Mu‘amar al-Qadhafi’s African policy, including his adoption of an African identity as an alternative to his Arab affiliation. Qadhafi’s perception of Libya’s identification with Africa has significantly motivated the initial surge of Africans into Libya, prodding them to take advantage of its geographical proximity as a springboard to Italy, highlighting once again the unique, pivotal position of Libya within the wider Maghrebian context.
    Exploring this multi-faceted subject, the article also focuses on the ultimate destination of the migrants, thus encompassing the entire sphere of Libyan-Italian migratory movement. Within this context, the article also deals with the bargaining card that Libya played vis-à-vis Italy in order to promote its vital interests.

 

IMMACOLATA CARUSO and BRUNO VENDITTO: “Immigration in Italy: An overview”

ABSTRACT: The increase in non-European immigrants which is taking place in the more advanced European countries mirrors a world context which is marked by imbalances in terms of both growth and welfare. A correct analysis of migration, of its structural characteristics and of the new dynamics of migration flows must consider the globalization process as well as the effect that this is having with regard to the movement of people. In this context the pull and push factors mutually reinforce a phenomena which can influence in either a positive or a negative way the international relationships among countries. In the last quarter of the century, a steadily increasing of migrants have crossed Europe; this has generated a complex relationship made of integration and rejection, adaptation and conflicts, which has influenced all aspects of both economic and social life, producing new phenomena, giving birth to new problems which require new approaches and solutions. Italy is part of this picture since it has witnessed in the last decades a huge influx of immigrants, whose numbers have increased with the high rate of Italian growth. In fact in 2005 Italy with 3,035,144 legal immigrants appears to be among the major destination of migrants in Europe, following Germany, Spain and France with 7,287,980, 3,371,394 and 3,263,186 immigrants respectively, and just before the UK with 2,857,000 immigrants.
    The 2005 increase in Italy is mainly due both to the new inflows (187,000) and the new births of foreign citizens (52,000); considering the low birth rate in Italy on the one hand and the continuous migration pressure from the country of origin of immigrants on the other it is easy to foresee in the near future an annual influx of at least 300,000 regular immigrants.
    Using the available statistical data, disaggregated at national, regional and provincial levels, it will be possible to have an overall picture of the phenomena described above and to compare the Italian case with events in other European countries. In this way we can have a better understanding of the process underlying migration in order to identify future scenarios.

 

PAUL GULBENKIAN: “Immigration Law in the United Kingdom”

ABSTRACT: This article explains the Law in the UK relating to Immigration, nationality and asylum procedures in the United Kingdom.

 

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Book Reviews / Comptes-rendus

The Maghreb Review — A Manifesto for the Twenty-first Century /
La Revue du Maghreb — Un Manifeste pour le XXIème siècle

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