SOMMAIRE DU VOL. 33, No. 1, 2008
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Vol. 33, No. 1, 2008
NUMÉRO SPÉCIAL SUR LES MIGRATIONS ET LIMMIGRATION
ANNE-MARIE BRISEBARRE: Des Musulmans Immigrés aux Musulmans Français : Le Statut du Sacrifice de lAïd al-Kebir.
RÉSUMÉ: Dans le contexte de la laïcité française, quel est le statut du sacrifice familial qui est au coeur de la grande fête de lAïd al-Kebir? Au travers des enquêtes de terrain, darticles de presse et de lanalyse des textes officiels, cet article montrera comment depuis 1981, année de larrivée au pouvoir dun gouvernement socialiste, cette pratique rituelle musulmane a posé problème aux pouvoirs publics, à léchelle municipale, départementale, nationale ou même européenne. Doù un certain nombre de tentatives pour encadrer ou organiser, réprimer ou interdire ce sacrifice. Dans le même temps, on est passé dune population immigrée de religion musulmane à la reconnaissance de lislam comme deuxième religion française : que devient aujourdhui le sacrifice de lAïd al-Kebir dans le cadre de « lislam de France »?
KARIMA LAACHIR: French Muslims and the Politics of Laïcité
ABSTRACT: This paper focuses on the way Islam has been racialized in Europe in the last decade and how this racialization fosters the implicit and latent exclusion of European Muslims from the benefits of constructive nation-building and the full rights of citizenship. The paper will specifically address the development in the relationship between the North African diaspora and the French government and the constant processes of negotiation and renegotiation that are taking place today in relation to issues of social, economic and political inclusion (not least in respect of the Republican laws of secularism or laïcité). It addresses the following questions. What are the effects of racism, xenophobia and social and political exclusion on mobilizing the young generation of North African diaspora in France towards moving to a new Islamic identity? Can we read the visibility of Islam and the demands of the North African diaspora as signs of integration and not disintegration in French society, because those demands arguably reflect their strong feelings of being part of the French nation, their homeland?
RICARD ZAPATA BARRERO: Moroccan Immigrants in Spain: An overview of main topics and normative challenges
ABSTRACT: For years Spain was a country of emigration,
mainly to the Northern countries of Europe, but also to Latin American
countries. In the last two decades, however, Spain has been transformed
into a country of immigration. The accession to the European Community
in 1985 and accompanying economic growth and the economic and historical
connections with Northern Africa and South America have mainly triggered
immigration. Although Spain still represents relatively low numbers
of immigrants compared to other European countries (6,2 per cent of
the population in 2005), immigration numbers have more than doubled
in 5 years. In 2004 Spain received most immigrants of the European Union
(EU). The large majority of immigrants come from Latin America, Europe
and Africa. Moroccan immigrants are the largest foreign national group
residing in Spain.
YEHUDIT RONEN: A Libyan-Italian Encounter: The changing mosaic of Mediterranean Migration
ABSTRACT: At the turn of the 21st century, an unprecedented
number of African migrants have crossed through the Maghreb and across
the Mediterranean Sea in ever-increasing waves, propelling themselves
towards the shores of the European Promised Land. Whether
it is voluntary or forced, migration within the Mediterranean basin
has a long historical precedent. Yet, Libyas function as a primary
conduit of migration from Africa through the Maghreb now positions it
at the vanguard of this massive movement towards Europe and particularly
towards Italy. Additionally, the fact that a huge number of migrants
stop temporarily or permanently in Libya itself is a recent development.
IMMACOLATA CARUSO and BRUNO VENDITTO: Immigration in Italy: An overview
ABSTRACT: The increase in non-European immigrants
which is taking place in the more advanced European countries mirrors
a world context which is marked by imbalances in terms of both growth
and welfare. A correct analysis of migration, of its structural characteristics
and of the new dynamics of migration flows must consider the globalization
process as well as the effect that this is having with regard to the
movement of people. In this context the pull and push factors mutually
reinforce a phenomena which can influence in either a positive or a
negative way the international relationships among countries. In the
last quarter of the century, a steadily increasing of migrants have
crossed Europe; this has generated a complex relationship made of integration
and rejection, adaptation and conflicts, which has influenced all aspects
of both economic and social life, producing new phenomena, giving birth
to new problems which require new approaches and solutions. Italy is
part of this picture since it has witnessed in the last decades a huge
influx of immigrants, whose numbers have increased with the high rate
of Italian growth. In fact in 2005 Italy with 3,035,144 legal immigrants
appears to be among the major destination of migrants in Europe, following
Germany, Spain and France with 7,287,980, 3,371,394 and 3,263,186 immigrants
respectively, and just before the UK with 2,857,000 immigrants.
PAUL GULBENKIAN: Immigration Law in the United Kingdom
ABSTRACT: This article explains the Law in the UK relating to Immigration, nationality and asylum procedures in the United Kingdom.